Extension of the

# Higgs Boson

to Gravitation

## The Higgs Boson

The Higgs Boson has been discovered in July 2012. The principle of the Higgs Mechanism is right but it does not explain mass and gravitation.

## The Higgs Field

To date, several moot points concerning the Higgs Field exist :

- The first point is not important but nevertheless must be highlighted. Physicists consider that the Higgs boson is the materialization of the Higgs Field, just like the photon materializes the EM field. This view is probably right but we do not have the proof of this extrapolation.
- In physics, the electric field is associated with the electric potential, the gravity field with the gravity potential, and so on. In the Higgs Boson Theory, the Higgs Field does not have its counterpart, the "Higgs Potential". This inconsistency must be explained.
- Physicists suppose that the Higgs Field permeates all space. This is pure speculation because the Higgs Boson has always been detected near particles. This means that we do not know if the Higgs Field permeates all space, or if it is locally created by these particles.
- The assumption that the Higgs Field could be produced by the particles involved in the interaction is an interesting suggestion because it solves the Higgs Potential inconsistency.
- Physicists think that mass and gravitation are parts of an unique theory. The Higgs Boson explains mass but does not cover gravitation.
- The left side of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE) is in 4D (x,y,z,t) whereas the right side in 5D (x,y,z,t,m)
since "m" is included in the Energy-Momentum tensor.
The 4D expression
*M = f*is missing in the Higgs Theory to solve this inconsistency of the EFE._{(x,y,z,t)} - ...other debatable points also exist...

The Higgs Boson Theory is right and accurate and its discovery is a great step in Physics. However, some parts are missing such as the link of the Higgs Boson to gravitation. This website proposes interesting solutions to the missing parts of the Higgs Theory.

## Curvature of Spacetime, Mass, and Gravitation

This website presents a new theory which is a part of the "Spacetime Model". Based on the curvature of spacetime discovered by Einstein in the 1910's, the Spacetime Model unifies mass, gravitation, and the Higgs Boson in a common 4D theory. It demonstrates that mass and gravitation are two similar phenomena.

## Mass

The origin of mass is the pressure exerted by the curvature of spacetime on massive objects.
The mass variable [M] can be extracted from this pressure [M/LT^{2}] by simple basic operations
and leads to the 4D following expression:

M = f_{(x,y,z,t)}.

As explained in the Higgs Boson webpage, the basic principle here developed is identical to the Higgs Mechanism.

## Gravitation

Gravitation is not an attractive force but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on objects that tends to bring them closer to each other.

Gravitation can be extracted from this pressure by simple mathematical operations: *F = PS*.

## Curvature of Spacetime

In 1927, Von Laue, Nobel Prize 1914, devised that the spacetime curvature might be convex, not concave. The Physics Community did not followed him but it seems that Von Laue was right. This leads to identical results because

Concave curvature + Attractive force ≡

Convex curvature + Pressure force.

For example, an attraction on one side of a sheet of paper (convex curvature) is equivalent to a pressure on the other side (concave curvature).

## Higgs Field and Higgs Boson

Here we demonstrate that the Higgs Field does not permeate all space as we suppose but is a
*"Newtonian Field in Spacetime"* created by the particles involved in the interaction.
The Higgs Boson is the materialization of this *"Newtonian Field in Spacetime"*.

Supported by clear explanations and easy-to-understand figures, this website:

- Gives a logical and rational explanation of the curvature of spacetime, and demonstrates that the latter is convex, not concave,
- Proposes a connection of mass/Higgs Mechanism to the curvature of spacetime and, consequently, to gravitation,
- Gives the expression of mass in 4D:
*M = f*,_{(x,y,z,t)} - Gives a logical and rational explanation of several puzzles of physics such as the increase of the mass of relativistic particles,
E = mc
^{2}, the Twin Paradox, deviation of light near a mass, dark matter... - Unifies the Higgs Boson, Higgs Field, Higgs Mechanism, Mass, and Gravitation in a common 4D Theory, the "Spacetime Model".

In other words, the "Spacetime Model" includes the Higgs Boson and the Higgs Mechanism in a more general 4D theory which unifies Mass and Gravitation.

It is strongly recommended to follow the reading sequence: